Diversity tips for understanding age diversity


So. As you can see from my LinkedIn profile photo, I am no longer 30 and I have lived long enough now to understand some of the differences between age; and more importantly, the differences in how the same language is perceived by different age groups.

Yesterday, I had an experience with a neighbour which I think demonstrates some of the differences between my understanding of language and its meaning, what I would call normal social behaviour, and what someone younger might understand from the same words or phases. In the apartment block where I live, we have three garages under each apartment and a space where a car could pull up immediately in front of them. You would normally be able to park a second car in front of these garages if it weren’t for the fact that the actual driveway onto the street is just a single car width which means that if you are the garage on the side and a car parks in front of the garage in the middle, you can’t get your car out. The residents have agreed that we don’t park in front for this purpose, but occasionally someone does and if I am at home, I ask them to park really close to the middle garage door so I can get out. Not ideal, enough said. So yesterday, this young women (maybe late 20’s) and her boyfriend were doing stuff out the front of the garage and I poked my head out to ask if they were from the apartment directly above me which would mean that was their garage. I had seen other people parking there just recently and thought this young women must have moved out, as I had met her previously when she moved in about a year ago. I said hello but she didn’t look at me, instead she spoke directly at the man she was with, and said; “is there a problem here?”. I spoke to the man that she was with and she (without acknowledging me), said, ‘he’s just moving in, so you need to bear with us’. She no doubt thought that I was going to complain, but I told her about other people parking in that spot so I thought she had moved. After a little bit of discussion I was able to confirm that she was the person who belonged to that garage and went inside, but the encounter left me disturbed.

We often hear the same phase or word in a different context based on our own experience

For me, her question, “is there a problem here” seemed aggressive and dismissive. To her, it was no doubt standard terminology. I have noticed that this phase is used more often by Gen X and Y’s. For me, the approach would have been first to acknowledge me and say ‘hello’ with something like, “I’m Sarah from number 7 and we are just moving Paul in. Won’t be too long but just let me know if you need us to move the car”. Instead, I have come away from the experience feeling dismayed that this person is my neighbour and wondering what else will be in store for me with this person living upstairs from me.

Similarly, I was recently talking to someone at work about respect, saying that a management behaviour that we were discussing was fundamentally about respect. It became apparent that what I know as ‘respect’ was different to this person’s idea of respect. They saw any opinion about their behaviour or actions as a criticism and thought that they should be ‘repected’. In this case it was them as a Manager taking it on themselves to start tasking staff in another Manager’s area without any discussion with the staff members manager. Their idea was that I should be ‘respecting them’ by allowing them to do whatever they wanted to without any opinion to the contrary because they wanted to get something done and they thought it was perfectly ok to start tasking team members in another management team. I said that this was probably a management 101 concept even forgetting about the respect idea, and secretly wondered how we would manage to achieve any outputs in this type of management paradigm.

The different responses and beliefs of different age groups can impact management decisions

I’m not saying that we need to respect people simply because of their age, in fact, I think that you earn respect, it is not simply given because of your age or position. When I was young we were taught to respect our elders and I think (rightly or wrongly) this gave us some sort of measuring stick for behaviour. That is; there was this hierarchy of respect with people like bank managers, lawyers and teachers gaining an almost automatic respect because of their position in society. Conversely housewives and carers were not respected in the same way, but none the less were given a degree of respect by their children because of their age and their family role as carer. Of course there was also an intersection of the degree of respect you had in relation to your gender and race that moderated other peoples behaviour and in some cases, of course, blatant racism and sexism still prevailed then as it does today.

In my work I assess, and assist many organisations to develop their diversity strategies to better leverage performance in their organisations and one of the most common findings that I see is that age diversity is not understood, nor is a strategy implemented. Instead, most of the rhetoric is aimed at the needs of younger employee’s which is of course important but it is not diversity. It seems that much of the diversity strategy or approach for more mature employees is relegated to the assumption that they might be ‘carers’ and that’s as far as it goes.

What I am saying is that age diversity is about more than the need for organisational diversity programs to make sure that a carer program is provided for (often) mature age women to avail themselves of in order to provide care to ageing parents or spouses.

Using a broader brush for age diversity

In this article I have presented just a couple of examples of the way that language, context and age work to form completely different pictures and approaches to the same conversation. This provides an example of how diversity, if managed well, faciliates different approaches to the same problem. In the first example where I am speaking to the young woman about the car parking, her response in language, attitude and delivery would put off your mature age clients, whereas to someone her own age might be a none issue. For me, it would be enough to make me go to another provider because it demonstrates a lack of understanding of the client base and a lack of connection to other people which many older people think is really important customer service. Or rather, it used to be, but that is another discussion. Remember that when people like me started working in the early 1980’s, customer service was big business and we were all routinely trained in its application including ‘how’ we answered the phone. Much of this training has stayed with me, and no doubt is important to others my age, but it is less important to younger people.

When you are developing your diversity strategy broaden your brush for age diversity, its not all about flexibility for carers, or education and training. Look at common language used in your organisation. Is it really skewed to ‘hip, buzz words’, with the culture of the organisation being ‘young, energetic, a fast paced environment, etc’. You can surely hear the job ads whilst I am speaking, but who is likely to be your client? This is another area where more mature workers don’t fair well and many times I consult to organisations about the wording and placement of information in their job ads as they will screen out older people and it doesn’t go unnoticed when sometimes this is the intention. Its not that older people don’t have the skills, its that they may not present them in the same way and put the same emphasis on what a younger worker might think is more important.

Consider how teams are put together and how the dynamics play out when you are doing team activities or working through strategies and problem solving. Is it driven by an ideal of youth, i.e. focus on energy, coolness and speed with little personal connection or is there a balance? Maybe you don’t want a balance in your organisation, this is also something to consider.

During my assessment consulting work with the DPRF, one of the most consistent findings is the presence of bullying and harassment. It seems to be getting worse and more sophisticated in the way that it plays out. Sadly, much of this harassment is from young senior female managers targeting older subordinate women. It happens to men as well, but, in my experience plays out slightly differently. This trend is disturbing and, in my experience is increasing.

If you would like more information about how to devise a holistic diversity and performance strategy, please contact me at susanne.moore@ambidio.com.au or susanne.moore@gendereconomics.org

References

Job Hunting Tips For The Mature-Age Workerhttp://careerfaqs.com.auIf you are over 45 and suddenly find yourself made redundant or seeking a career change, the thought of having to hit the job trail and compete against people years younger than yourself can be downright scary.

http://www.moneycrashers.com/benefits-hiring-older-workers/

https://www.monster.com/career-advice/article/get-your-50-plus-resume-right

Feature Image http://www.moneycrashers.com/benefits-hiring-older-workers/

First published on Linkedin by me on April 8, 2017

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Gender Economics in action


Gender Economics is the fusion of sociology, economics and gender studies and looks at shifting current perceptions of gender and how we use these perceptions in framing economic policy. Very often, it is an intersection of gender, values and beliefs that create policy decisions, many of which are based on outdated models. It is important that we start to understand how economic research is conducted, how the statistical analysis is created and how this flows into policy decisions and ultimately the business bottom line.   

Gender Economics is about “dissecting and creating a new discourse around economic theory that fuses Economics, Gender and Sociology” [Moore, S, 2012]  
Think of a persistent organisational challenge and start to unpick it by looking at the assumptions and environments that created the challenge in the first place, chances are the core of the challenge has been created by imposing outdated business models, values and measurements that no longer work.  Then reframe the challenge by applying new thought paradigms and you may very likely uncover innovations that lead to increases in performance.  Traditional gender stereotypes have shifted and organisations can no longer assume that they are catering to the working heterosexual white male with a wife at home because the ground rules have changed.  According to Wikipedia2, the US LGBT consumer market in 2013 ‘is estimated to have an overall buying power of more than $835 billion’.  This demonstrates that marketing to this group requires specialisation to reap the benefits of that economy. 

Much of our business culture is centuries old from the structures to the drivers, and our organisations must change to keep pace with a global economy where diversity, and cross-cultural management enforce new skills around managing complexity. 

In 2009, the Harvard Business Review3 made the bold statement that “Women now drive the world economy”, and estimated that globally women will control about $20 trillion in annual consumer spending over the next five years.  Look at any social networking site or news stream and you will see articles that recognise that the financial empowerment of women is a game changer.  Businesses must now attract talent from a wider pool, some from necessity, but many recognising that by developing a “Women’s Employer of Choice” reputation, it will ultimately help them increase their competitiveness in the market.  However, it is not as simple as painting women’s issues with a ‘pink’ brush,  organisations must understand the shifts that have taken place in gendered stereotypes and how this sociological change now affects business structures and changes in economic policy formation. 
Gender Economics looks at how gender influences economic decisions and how those decisions impact gender.  The way we target gender for economic gain or increased market share can either benefit or degrade the rights of marginalised groups, often leading to policy formation with an underlying gender bias overlaid with a view on how economics, policy and gender interact with society.  

This emerging field challenges current economic theory, broadening the conversation to encompasses sociological complexities currently at play in society – ie: we look to deconstruct economic policy, reconstructing it in a manner that allows us to develop rational and objective tracks for further research.  Issues of female inequality have persisted for decades if not centuries and instead of talking about the issues, Gender Economics explores underneath the issue and provides new discourses that have the power to change the way we work and live.  A simple example of Gender Economics and a persistent issue is the gender wage gap in Australia that continues regardless of the amount of effort and talk that goes on.  In 1907 Australia passed a little known policy known as the “Harvester Judgement ” that saw the start of reduced wages for women in preference to that of the ‘working family man’.  This policy was introduced primarily to give organisations a competitive advantage through the use of cheaper female labour and this precedent continues today with feminised work segments in organisations exploiting cheaper labour without thinking about leveraging their diverse workforce for gain.    

Much of our business culture is centred on the concept of scarcity, of not enough to go around but where did this thinking process start?  Staying competitive by having unique products that differentiate you from the rest of the marketplace can lead to a culture of aggressive competition and cost cutting.  With more organisations becoming lean and agile what if the model moved from one of scarcity to one of ‘abundance’.  What are the attributes of abundance and is it just a mind shift or can we create business models that promote it?  Some argue that the accepted female attributes of sharing and collaboration may lead to a richer business environment, so would increasing gender diversity change your organisation? 

Gender Economics is the new Business Transformation, the next major resource, and will open a channel to increased innovation and creativity through Diversity of Thought and the ability to maximise the management of our increasingly complex environments.  Organisations that understand that gender balance is the new competitive edge will be better equipped in a global marketplace where women are increasingly taking their place at the decision table.  Whether it be a increased awareness of women’s economic impact at a country level or that gender diversity has been shown to add benefits to company board, women are learning to invest in themselves and their financial future.  

There are many persistent gender issue’s that just don’t seem to go away and this is particularly true in areas of gender inequality, and I feel that this is because we so often talk ‘around’ the issues instead of deconstructing them and understanding why they are issues in the first place.  The next step is to start unpicking current thinking on economics and business start reframing our thinking, putting age-old issues into new contexts – that is Gender Economics at its core! 

Inspiring idea’s from tomorrows leaders keen to understand #GenderEconomics


Over the last couple of years I had the absolute privilege of giving Collequiums and Think Tanks on #GenderEconomics at Macquarie University for their Global Leadership Program, one of the few if not the only one of its kind. During that time, I had some great discussions with the students but more importantly, I heard first hand inspiring ideas from these future leaders, drawn from the disciplines of law, economics, social sciences, politics and science. Their ideas were sometimes staggering. thinking outside the square and feeling inspired to create their own movements using the #ImPuttingMyHandUp hashtag that I use in all my talks. These students gave me confidence that the leaders of tomorrow are well equipped to take the worlds economic and social remits positively into the future.

You might think that Gender Economics is just about discussing gender and the social sciences, but it is about much more than that. #GenderEconomics takes economic theory and then overlays it with the multi lens of culture, values and gender. I always try to get the participants to identify issues and discussion points that we can apply the concepts of Gender Economics to and in one of the Think Tanks our topics for discussion ranged from terrorism, to marriage equality, to shopping and consumerism, to racism as well as fear and its impact on economics.

Still think Gender Economics is just about women?

Here are some takeaways of what they thought Gender Economics was about (from a post session survey);

  • The impact of how gender affects roles in the workplace
  • Key learning points included the holistic understanding of the concept of gender being applied in a wide variety of settings; workforce, political forums, law…etc.
  • The key points revolved around the structure and design and behaviour of the corporate environment across cultures and time shaped by perceptions of gender differences.
  • Understanding the different perspectives between men and women in the workforce. Understanding the impacts work culture and atmosphere play on women and gender stereotypes. Role of men and women within society at work and in the larger community
  • I learnt a lot about the impact of inequality on the economy in relation to different issues and countries.
  • Raising awareness for established gender norms that are unsuitable and limiting in both the workplace and the world
  • To learn about the effects of gender stereotypes on economic performance globally and why we should challenge our thinking.
  • I thought that learning the separation between feminism and gender economics was the strongest takeaway for me from this presentation.
  • Diffrent methods to deal with gender issues in the work place
  • There is a broader explanation to every social construct and it has huge consequences for the individual and the society including economics
  • Thinking more carefully about how our policies and decisions impact future generations and the way we think about gender
  • Exploring gendered assumptions and how they are part of the culture/structure of organisations and thus how they effect the diversity of the workforce
  • I personally learned more about the enculturation process of gender and how it is embodied in many aspects of our society
  • A better understanding of organisational behaviours and where they derived from historically and culturally and its contemporary relevance in today’s work environment.
  • Opened my eyes to what gender economics are, and how we can tackle these stereotypes society gives us, by being assigned a gender role.
  • Understanding some of the economic concepts behind it and the role of policy and changing work culture in today’s environment.
  • This colloquium made me think out side of the box and understand how deep gender inequality is ingrained into our society.
  • That women are not only demoralised by other genders but by the women themselves. The majority look at a woman being in a secondary supporting role, when in reality that should not be the case. That is just a perception created.
  • Male predominance can be very subtle
  • I learnt about how important it is to entrench gender and remove barriers within economics, in order to maximise the benefits to all sexes and society as a whole.
  • It opened my mind to the length at which the inequalities span. I always knew about the payment inequalities for women but I didn’t realise, or more probably didn’t think about the way our society works to create these inequalities.
  • I really challenged my thinking in certain areas. For example, how toys that children play specific toys and that actually “integrates” them into their future roles in society.
  • The colloquium has taught me how societal norms affect a society economically. That gender, cultural and value assumptions are reflected not only in the workplace, but also in media, in the family, etc. which constrains individuals. Hence, the need for taking a critical view and approach.
  • I got a better sense of what I can do in the future when looking into jobs and society with the discrepancies between men and women economically and socially.
  • Majoring in Gender Studies, this colloquium helped me to further my studies on how gender influences and is influenced by the world around us.
  • The field caught my interest and I want to learn more about it to improve my competencies in the field of organizations
  • I feel more confident that I can develop my leadership ability beyond feminine qualities like kindness and empathy.
  • A better understanding of the meaning of Gender economics, and several points never previously thought about
  • a better perspective on the way gender influences business and the economy and how this is different all over the world, as opposed to my prior understanding of the social construction of gender

Find out how your organisation can benefit from reframing your perspective of gender by contacting me today at susanne.moore@gendereconomics.org

ABOUT THE CENTRE FOR GENDER ECONOMICS AND INNOVATION

The Centre for Gender Economics & Innovation aims to be the global leader in bringing a “Gender Economics” lens to understand and improve business performance and enable the sustainable management of complexity (diversity). The Centre uses a proprietary framework, the DPRF to assess an organisations diversity, innovation and performance capability on a maturity scale against international benchmarks. Would you like your organisation rewarded?

ABOUT SUSANNE MOORE @susannemoore

Susanne is the Founder and Chair of The Centre for Gender Economics and Innovation and is credited with developing the emerging fields of Gender Economics (macro) and Diversity Economics (organisational). Now a Sociologist after a career in ICT and business, she has a focus on Gender, innovation and performance at an organisational level . She is the creator of the Diversity Program Review Framework or DPRF, currently used in the Australian Resources industry to ‘recognise’ (AWRA Recognised) organisations as a ‘Women’s Employer of Choice’. She is conducting a research project on ‘The Profit Impact of Organisational Gender Diversity programs”and brings a practical business experience coupled with academic rigour to her consulting practice around Gender Economics.

CONTACT INFORMATION – www.centreforgendereconomics.org

Susanne Moore

Founder & Chair, Centre for Gender Economics and Innovation

0439 420 897

susanne.moore@gendereconomics.org

Is this simple Gender Diversity formula holding your organisation back?


Quote by Susanne Moore (2017)

 

For the mathematically minded, a Gender Economics formula. When many organisations talk about Diversity or Gender Diversity, they tend to go into a circular state. This is from one of my recent talks about GE highlighting the formula – Diversity (seems to) equal (discussions about) Flexibility (which then go into discussions) that equal Women (then we think women) so equals Flexibility, then it equals Diversity (discussions) and here we are again with Diversity equalling discussions about Women. Of course the discussion should be about way more than that, but this simple formula is one of the things that I think is holding our organisations back from realising actual performance improvement by leveraging diversity.

‘The compounding affect, and economic impact of Stereotyping’ – a talk by Susanne Moore 13 September 2016


largepicstereogif

I’m delighted to announce that I’ll be presenting at Stereotyping: Avoiding the Pitfalls and Creating Best Practice 2016 on 13 September 2016 in Sydney. What’s more, as my contact you’re entitled to receive $100 off the early bird discount.

Simply register here and quote the promotional code: STEREO100 

About My Session:  

‘The compounding affect, and economic impact of Stereotyping’

  • Discover how your ideas of stereotypes might be holding you back or limiting your view or others
  • Discuss how stereotypes are formed by looking back over the journey of society and how this development is represented in our generations
  • We will look at the same problems differently by employing the concepts of Gender Economics by understanding how gender, and culture affect the way we value individuals

I hope to meet you there!

Susanne

download the brochure F094StereotypingBusinessModuledraft

“Gender in Corporate” – Macquarie University, Monday 12 October 2015


I will be delivering this talk to the Economics, Commerce and Finance Society (ECFS) at Macquarie University on Monday 12 October, 2015.

What does diversity actually mean and what is the link between diversity and increased organisational performance. This session will take you on a journey to explore how we have arrived at this point and how societal and cultural pressures affect the way that we have created our corporate environments.  Lets strip away the buzzwords and the favourites in the gender diversity discussion like pay gap, women’s leadership and mentoring and see what that actually translates to in real terms and why things aren’t changing as quickly as we might like.    Susanne Moore will discuss some of the findings in the resources industry through her research and consulting using the Diversity Program Review Framework (DPRF)and the concepts of Gender Economics.  Find out what you can do in the new economy and why it is important for both men and women Lead in the Female Economy* by understanding the way that diversity will impact the ‘new business transformation’.

*#imputtingmyhandup to Lead in the Female Economy is a program of The Centre for Gender Economics and Innovation which will be launched at the end of October 2015.

ABOUT THE CENTRE FOR GENDER ECONOMICS AND INNOVATION

The Centre for Gender Economics & Innovation aims to be the global leader in bringing a “Gender Economics” lens to understand and improve business performance and enable the sustainable management of complexity (diversity).  The Centre uses a proprietary framework, the DPRF to assess an organisation’s diversity, innovation and performance capability on a maturity scale against international benchmarks.  Would you like your organisation rewarded?

ABOUT SUSANNE MOORE

Susanne is the Founder and Chair of The Centre for Gender Economics and Innovation (C4GEI™) and is credited with developing the emerging fields of Gender Economics (macro) and Diversity Economics (organisational). Now a Sociologist after a career in ICT and business, she has a focus on Gender, innovation and performance at an organisational level.  She is the creator of the Diversity Performance Review Framework or DPRF, currently used in the Australian Resources industry to ‘recognise’ (AWRA Recognised) organisations as a ‘Women’s Employer of Choice’.  She is conducting a research project on ‘The Profit Impact of Organisational Gender Diversity programs’, and brings practical business experience coupled with academic rigour to her consulting practice around Gender Economics.

CONTACT INFORMATION – www.centreforgendereconomics.org

For Media Enquiries and Further Information contact:

 

Susanne Moore

Founder & Chair, Centre for Gender Economics and Innovation

0439 420 897

susanne.moore@gendereconomics.org

Feature Article: The link between HIV and Violence Against Women


Published in The Female Report October 29, 2013

Sometimes studying sociology can be depressing, reading enormous amounts of information that usually tell a sorry tale of persistent and current inequalities against women.  One of the biggest issues continues to be the use of violence (and sexual violence) to maintain and sustain a power imbalance between men and women that limits a woman’s ability to negotiate safe sex.

I thought long and hard about posting this paper, but what I have noticed since studying Sociology is that much of the information that is actually informative resides in academia and is not accessible to everyone.  It is the accessibility of this information that I think will help to change our societies for the better, so I have resolved to post as much as I can for others to share.  Due to copyright laws, in many cases I can’t post the full articles, but I can reference them in my own writings and this is one of those articles.

One of my current study subjects is “Gender, Power and Globalisation”, and this subject means I am wading through reams of documents with startling statistics about the intersection of violence against women and the spread of HIV AIDS.  This is information that many of us are unaware of, and whilst women in countries like Australia, the United States and United Kingdom argue that they have already achieved full parity with men, alarming statistics indicate the large majority of women and girls in many countries are very far from equal.

Interestingly, I found some startling similarities in the way these situations arise and are managed by policy makers that could apply to all of us.  Many of these women and girls are in fact, becoming more vulnerable to violence, subordination to males and increased health risks, due largely to the increased migration and movement of people as a result of globalisation.  This vulnerability is particularly evident when it comes to HIV AIDS for women in cultures where they are not equal, or lack access to education and support services.  In a journal by the United Nations Development Fund for Women, UNIFEM 2008, one author cites the following statistics;

“In its 2007 AIDS Epidemic UpdateUNAIDS estimates that globally the proportion of women to men living with HIV remained stable between 2001 and 2007, although the number of those infected increased by about 1.7 million. Behind this statistic however, UNAIDS reported a complex mix of sexual realities, including HIV transmission to women from men who were infected through unprotected sex, including unprotected paid sex and/or sex with other men, and/or unprotected sex with people who use drugs.

see the full article here http://femalereport.wordpress.com/2013/10/29/feature-article-the-link-between-hiv-and-violence-against-women/

Interviews, Speaker and Media Appearances


SPEAKER/MEDIA PROFILE

  1. “Gender in Corporate” – Macquarie University, Monday 12 October 2015 Macquarie University “Gender in Corporate”
  2. RADIO INTERVIEW July 30, 2015 with Tanya Bunter, The Mag RTRFM 92.1
  3. MC  – MC April 23, 2015 launch of the Infinitas/C4GEi Diversity Performance Index 
  4. RADIO INTERVIEW April 23, 2015 Interview with ABC World Today
  5. INTERVIEW WOMENS AGENDA 23 April, 2015 – The All Blokes Index
  6. SPEAKER – October 2014 Family Office Congress VII
    – INTERVIEW Connected Women 16 September 2014
  7. INTERVIEW Connected Women
  8. MC AND KEYNOTE SPEAKER June 2014 – MC, Speaker and Organiser at the Gender Economics Global Conference, GGEC14 Sydney
  9. INTERVIEW – 15 July 2014 Interview 10 thousand girls VIDEO SERIES
  10. INTERVIEW – Equal Pay Day, Economic Security 4 Women event
  11. SPEAKER PANEL MEMBER September 2013 – Panel Member Women in Leadership (WIL) Economic Forum, Shanghai China.
  12. KEYNOTE SPEAKER May 2013 – European Professional Women’s Network (EPWN) Madrid Spain.
  13. KEYNOTE SPEAKER Project Manager meetup “The Commodifacation of Skills”​ Sydney April 2012
  14. KEYNOTE SPEAKER PMI Queensland “Gender Economics” November 2012
  15. PANEL MEMBER SOSU Sydney August 2012

Contemporary Global Perspectives on Gender Economics


Publication by Susanne Moore

Publication by Susanne Moore

Moore, S. (2015). Contemporary Global Perspectives on Gender Economics (pp. 1-357). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-8611-3

The rise of women in the workforce has led to many campaigns for wage equality, and for the impartial treatment of both sexes as they pursue careers previously designated as either a man’s or a woman’s job. The impact of these campaigns has been felt, but a sense of gender stereotyping still affects not only the social and cultural well-being of the modern organisations, but the drive for innovation and economic success as well.

Contemporary Global Perspectives on Gender Economics challenges current economic theory, targeting the way gender is often used for economic gain or increased market share. Experts realise that company growth can no longer be achieved by taking a conventional approach, but few follow through with introducing new frameworks that change the way diversity is treated. By acknowledging that issues like childcare and the wage gap are not only a woman’s challenge, this book speaks to legislators and policymakers, economic developers, corporate practitioners, educational faculties, and students of all disciplines who are looking to change the way gender is viewed in the workforce.

This essential reference source features chapters that combine the concepts of gender theory, sociology, and economics and cover topics including economic equality, gender bias, the history of gender economics, industrial creativity, and the impact of social connectedness on life satisfaction.